Multifactor Authentication: What is it? How to use it?

Ensuring seccuring access to accounts, networks and devices has never been more critical. Threat actors are increasingly innovative and sophisticated, getting into places they don’t belong. 

Cybersecurity professionals and leaders have long championed Multifactor Authentication (MFA), but wider acceptance and implementation of MFA has been a slow journey. However, we’re finnaly approaching a point where it is widely used.  

But what exactly makes MFA so important in the fight against cyber crime As we peel back the layers of MFA, we’ll discover not just its benefits but also the nuances and challenges it brings to the table. Join us as we delve into the world of MFA

What is Multifactor Authentication?

Multifactor Authentication is a security principle and system that makes users prove their identity across several different “factors” to prove they are who they claim they are. This process enhances security by combining multiple forms of identification, thereby creating a layered defense against unauthorized access.

That raises the question, “What is an authentication factor”?

It is generally agreed that there are three distinct factors of authentication, each of which can be verified or implemented in different ways. The three factors are described as “something you know,” something you have, “and something you are.”

Something You Know: This is the most traditional factor of user authentication. Passwords, PINs, and security questions all fall under this factor. It’s worth noting that authentication processes that ask you to provide a password and answer a security question are not MFA since they rely entirely on the Knowledge factor.  

Something You Have: This is the most common factor added in MFA processes, asking you to demonstrate access to an object or other account. Authentication apps or SMS codes demonstrate access to a phone, while verification emails demonstrate access to an email account. Physical security keys are also a common verification method that relies on this factor. 

Something You Are: Finally, this factor dips into biometric authentication. Fingerprint scanning and facial recognition are fairly common sign-in methods for our mobile devices and are increasingly being leveraged in other contexts. Another aspect of this authentication factor that is worth considering is the concept of “cyberbiometrics’: these include digital identifiers such as IP address, time zone, or user behavior patterns to establish whether a user is legitimate.  

By combining different forms of evidence, MFA makes it harder for an attacker to impersonate a user and gain access to computers, networks, or databases.   

Critical Benefits of MFA

Multifactor Authentication offers numerous benefits to organizations and individuals to bolster an organization’s digital defenses:

Enhanced Security Layer: MFA introduces an additional layer of security beyond passwords. By requiring multiple types of verification, MFA makes unauthorized access exponentially more challenging for cyber criminals. Even if one factor (like a password) is compromised, the presence of another keeps the account secure. While not bulletproof, MFA protects against many attacks and makes threat actors work much harder to compromise a system. 

Facilitating Remote Access: When consistent in-office work was the norm, physical access to corporate machines and offices was an unofficial, de-facto authentication factor. Now that remote work, SaaS, and cloud environments are more common, this isn’t the case. MFA ensures that employees can securely access corporate systems from any location. This secure access is crucial for maintaining the integrity of sensitive data outside the traditional office environment.

Reduced Reliance on Passwords: Over-reliance on passwords is a significant vulnerability in cybersecurity. Ensuring that password-based security is effective can be surprisingly tricky. MFA reduces this reliance by incorporating additional security measures, mitigating the risks associated with compromised passwords.

Compliance with Regulatory Requirements: Many industries now mandate using MFA to comply with data protection regulations. Implementing MFA helps organizations adhere to these regulations, thus avoiding potential legal, financial, and reputational penalties.

The integration of MFA into security frameworks not only elevates the security posture of organizations but also aligns with evolving best practices and regulatory standards. 

Challenges of Multifactor Authentication

While Multifactor Authentication significantly improves security, it’s not without its challenges, which organizations need to navigate effectively:

Perception of Infallibility: Multifactor Authentication solutions have sometimes been oversold as bulletproof. Claims of preventing 99% of breaches can be overly optimistic. Sophisticated threat actors have developed and used attack methods that either circumvent or directly attack MFA protocols to gain unauthorized access to accounts. Understanding its limitations is crucial for implementing MFA in a broader, layered security strategy.

Vulnerability to Specific Attacks: Certain forms of MFA are susceptible to specific attacks. For instance, threat actors can launch SIM-swapping attacks that trick phone carriers into transferring access to a user’s phone number and then using SMS-based authentication to compromise an account. Similarly, sophisticated phishing attacks can trick users with fake sign-in emails to launch man-in-the-middle attacks.  

Balance Between Security and User Convenience: Like so many topics in cybersecurity, secure measures can often feel incredibly inconvenient for other users, and the most convenient solutions are the least secure. Thanks to SIM-swapping exploits discussed above, SMS-based MFA is easily the least secure, but it is likely the most widely adopted thanks to its ease of use. When implementing MFA solutions, it’s essential to implement them in a way that minimizes friction for employees to encourage effective usage.  

While MFA is essential to modern cybersecurity, understanding and addressing its challenges is key to maximizing its effectiveness. Organizations must carefully consider these factors to implement MFA solutions that are both secure and user-friendly.

Maximizing the Effectiveness of Multifactor Authentication

Organizations should consider several steps and strategies to get the most out of MFA solutions and minimize the challenges. 

Integrate with Single Sign-On (SSO) Solutions: Pairing MFA with SSO can streamline authentication for users and the organization. With SSO users can access different applications and systems with one set of login credentials, and when combined with MFA, it ensures this convenience does not compromise security. This approach simplifies and automates the authentication process, making it more user-friendly and secure.

Regular Auditing and Verification: Implementing MFA is only effective if it gets used. Thanks to the modern prevalence of “shadow IT” in many organizations, ensuring that MFA is used in all business-critical programs and tools is often challenging. Establish a methodology for periodically auditing MFA usage and compliance. This ensures that MFA protocols are followed correctly and allows for timely identification and rectification of any issues. 

User Education and Support: Establishing a culture of security and user buy-in is essential to get the most out of your MFA solution. Otherwise, usage will be grudging and bypassed at the first opportunity. Educate your users about the importance of MFA and how to protect against social engineering attacks that may attempt to compromise their MFA security. Regular training sessions, FAQs, and support lines can help users understand and adapt to MFA, reducing resistance and increasing compliance.

By implementing these practices, organizations can optimize their MFA deployment, making it a seamless part of the user experience while maintaining robust security. Effective MFA implementation is about finding the right mix of security, convenience, and adaptability.


Despite its challenges, Multifactor Authentication is necessary In today’s cyber landscape. MFA’s benefits—bolstering security, facilitating secure remote access, and meeting regulatory demands—far outweigh implementation hurdles and potential user resistance. The key to success lies in smart integration, continuous oversight, and fostering a culture of security awareness.

At Atlantic Data Security, our expert security team has decades of experience helping organizations optimize their security tools and posture in the face of evolving threats. Speak with one of our advisors to learn how to best implement MFA for your team or organization.  

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